This Support section includes literature related to planning and implementing positive behavior support interventions.  It includes articles on single subject and group research and edited texts that summarize evidence-based practices.  The articles are organized around the key features of positive behavior support interventions: proactive, teaching, and management strategies.  Click on the citations below to be redirected to either the publication itself (if available) or the publisher’s website where the item can be purchased.

Although a variety of strategies may be research based, the specific approaches selected should be relevant to needs and preferences of people in need of support, assessments conducted, and settings and circumstances in which strategies will be used.  The ultimate value of any support practice is its impact on behavior and quality of life.

Comprehensive Support:

A Component Analysis of Positive Behavior Support Plans – McClean & Grey (2012).  Article describing outcomes of a component analysis of 1,272 interventions, evaluating the impact of different elements on child behavior change (for purchase).

An Evaluation of Positive Behavioural Support for People with Very Severe Challenging Behaviours in Community-Based Settings  McClean, Grey, & McCracken (2007).  A study on a framework for supporting adults living together in a community setting aimed at reducing challenging behavior while increasing the person’s quality of life (free).

A Positive Behavioural Support Model for Breaking the Barriers to Social and Community Inclusion – LaVigna & Willis (2005).  A study on a framework for removing barriers to full inclusion of adults with developmental disabilities that engage in challenging behavior (free). 

Positive Behavior Support for People with Developmental Disabilities: A Research Synthesis – Carr, Horner, Turnbull, and colleagues (1999).  A book that is a meta analysis of the research in positive behavior support and includes recommendations for future research (free).

Proactive Strategies:

Antecedent Assessment and Intervention: Supporting Children and Adults with Developmental Disabilities in Community Settings – Luiselli (2006).  Updated from a previous publication with a focus on helping psychologists, educators, and rehabilitation specialist support children with challenging behavior (for purchase).

Quality of Rapport as a Setting Event for Problem Behavior – Magito-McLaughlin & Carr (2005).  Article describing two companion studies to assess the relationship between rapport and behavior of individuals with developmental disabilities and intervention to enhance caregiver rapport (free).

Teaching Strategies:

Functional Communication Training to Reduce Challenging Behavior: Maintenance and Applications in New Settings – Durand & Carr (1991).  Research article on teaching function communication skills to three children with developmental disabilities (free).

A family-centered positive behavior support approach to the amelioration of food refusal behavior: An empirical case study – Binnendyk, L., & Lucyshyn, J. M. (2009).  A parent training strategy using positive behavior support is described for increasing the amount of food eating by a young child diagnosed with autism (free).

Management Strategies:

Training a Family in Physical Interventions as Part of a Positive Behavior Support Intervention for Challenging Behavior. – Hewitt, Keeling, & Pearce (2015).  Article providing a case study of proactive and reactive methods to address and adult son’s violent behavior and improve the family’s confidence in managing the behaviors.

Designing and Evaluating Assessment-Based Interventions to Reduce Stereotypy Among Adults with Autism in a Community Job – Reid, D. Hl, Parson, M. B., & Lattimore, L. P. (2010).  An example where functional analysis and positive behavior support interventions resulted in increased work behaviors for adults diagnosed with autism (free).

Parenting Programs: 

Employing the Principles of Positive Behavior Support to Enhance Family Education and InterventionHieneman & Fefer (2017).  Discussion article outlining the features of PBS, how they may be applied with families, and recommendations (free).

Strategies for Helping Parents of Young Children Address Challenging Behaviors in the Home – Chai & Lieberman-Betz (2016).  An article for parents and educators that presents a real scenario regarding the use of positive behavior support for a 3 year-old girl (free).

Transforming Parent-Child Interaction in Family Routines: Longitudinal Analysis with Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities – Lucyshyn et al. (2015).  Evaluation of a PBS intervention with 10 families within 36 routines using multiple baseline designs (free).

Parent Implementation of Function-Based Intervention to Reduce Challenging Behavior: A Literature Review – Fettig & Barton (2014).  A research synthesis that describes variables within the studies and recommendations for future directions (for purchase).

Collaborating with Parents to Implement Behavioral Interventions for Children with Challenging Behaviors – Park, Alber-Morgan, & Fleming (2011).  An article designed for practitioners and serves as a guide for training parents in implementing supports for their child (free).

Intervening in the Lives of Youth with Complex Behavioral Health Challenges and their Families: The Role of the Wraparound Process – Bruns et al. (2010).  An article describing wraparound process, an approach that is aligned with PBS to address significant behavioral challenges in youth (free).

Implementation of positive behavior support with a sibling set in a home environment – Duda, Fox, Clarke, & Dunlap (2008).  Study describing functional assessment and multi-component intervention for three children with behavioral challenges using a multiple baseline design across routines (free).

Family Implementation of Positive Behavior Support for a Child with Autism: Longitudinal, Single-Case, Experimental, and Descriptive Replication and Extension – Lucyshyn et al. (2007).  An experimental case study of positive behavior support with a child with autism in his family home over a 10 year period (free).

Intervening in Children’s Lives: An Ecological, Family-Centered, Approach to Mental Health Care – Dishion & Stormshak (2007).  A book describing an ecological approach to intervention that shares features with PBS (for purchase).

Family-school Collaboration and Positive Behavior Support – Minke & Anderson (2005).  An article that describes the challenges of school and parent collaboration and offers suggestions for overcoming those challenges (free).

Families and Positive Behavior Support: Addressing Problem Behavior in Family Contexts – Lucyshyn, Dunlap, & Albin (2002).  A book summarizing the research on PBS with families and offering guidance for implementation (for purchase).

Parent-Professional Collaboration for Positive Behavior Support in the Home – Marshall & Mirenda (2002).  Article discussing challenges and benefits of parent professional collaboration via a case study relevant to assessment, intervention, and implementation (free).

Contextualized Behavioral Support in Early Intervention for Children with Autism and their Families – Moes & Frea (2002).  Study of functional communication training within family routines that informed and evaluated intervention related to contextual fit (for purchase).

Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: Towards an Empirically Validated Multilevel Parenting and Family Support Strategy for the Prevention of Behavior and Emotional Problems in Children – Sanders (1999).  An article about the comprehensive, multilevel system of parenting for high-risk children and their parents (for purchase).