Adults and Aging

-Content Expert Scott Shepard

In this section you will find literature focused on implementing positive behavior support in competitive and supported employment environments, as well as vocational and other training programs (e.g., university-based) that assist people in working.  We have also included literature on supporting people in the home and other places within the community.

Positive behavior support is essential to help people with behavioral challenges gain and retain meaningful employment, live independently, and live full lives.  As with all applications of positive behavior support, practices focus on:

    • Collaboration with employers, coworkers, patrons, staff, families, and professionals,
    • Comprehensive support plans that fit within settings,
    • An emphasis on quality of life for all involved,
    • Assessing people’s skills, work requirements, and other factors that could affect success, and
    • Ongoing data-based monitoring to ensure success including job satisfaction and home life quality.

To access additional content click the title of the heading below.

Career and Workplace

Contributions of positive behavior support amid lingering questions over its relationship with behavior analysis: A review of Positive behavior supports for adults with disabilities in employment, community, and residential settings by Storey, and Post - Reid, D. (2020) in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (for purchase).

Positive Behaviour Support and Supported Employment for Adults with Severe Disability - West & Patton (2010).  This study applied PBS to support adults working in community based settings that have historically been isolated (available for purchase).

Positive Behavior Support: Supporting Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Workplace - Schall (2010).  Research findings on the application of a PBS support model for an adult diagnosed with autism is presented (available for purchase).

Employment and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Challenges and Strategies for Success - Hendricks (2010).  This paper summarizes the current research on the state of employment for adults diagnosed with autism and the current barriers to successful employment (available for purchase).

Preparing Transition-Age Students with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders for Meaningful Work - Gloria Lee and Erik Carter (2012).  This paper summarizes several methods of transition to work that impacted successful long term employment for adults diagnosed with autism (available for purchase).

Designing and Evaluating Assessment-Based Interventions to Reduce Stereotypy Among Adults with Autism in a Community Job - Reid, D. Hl, Parson, M. B., & Lattimore, L. P. (2010).  An example where functional analysis and positive behavior support interventions resulted in increased work behaviors for adults diagnosed with autism (free).

Building Community Connections

An Evaluation of Positive Behavioural Support for People with Very Severe Challenging Behaviours in Community-Based Settings - McClean, Grey, & McCracken (2007).  A study on a framework for supporting adults living together in a community setting aimed at reducing challenging behavior while increasing the person's quality of life (free).

Quality of Rapport as a Setting Event for Problem Behavior - Magito-McLaughlin & Carr (2005).  Article describing two companion studies to assess the relationship between rapport and behavior of individuals with developmental disabilities and intervention to enhance caregiver rapport (free).

Positive Behavior Support: Including People with Difficult Behavior in the Community - Koegel, Koegel, & Dunlap (1996).  First book defining PBS as an approach to support people's challenging behavior in inclusive settings (for purchase).

A Positive Behavioural Support Model for Breaking the Barriers to Social and Community Inclusion - LaVigna & Willis (2005).  A study on a framework for removing barriers to full inclusion of adults with developmental disabilities that engage in challenging behavior (free).

Later Life and Retirement

Active Aging for Individuals with Intellectual Disability: Meaningful Community Participation Through Employment, Retirement, Service, and Volunteerism - Fesko, S .L, Hall, A. C., Quinlan, J., & Jockell, C. (2012).  This paper summarizes issues to consider when engaged in retirement planning with individuals with developmental disabilities.  Recommendations for policy makers, service providers, and researchers is presented (free).

Leisure Education and Later-Life Planning: A Conceptual Framework - Jennifer Mactavish and Michael J. Mahon (2005).  Issues with an aging population are explored along with methods to support later life leisure skill development (free).

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