Early Childhood

This Early Childhood section includes literature focused on implementation of positive behavior support with young children (i.e., birth-5).  It covers applications in preschool programs and home-based intervention with families.  Included in this section are articles on individual interventions, as well as program evaluations.  Click on the citations below to be redirected to either the publication itself (if available) or the publisher’s website where the item can be purchased.

Early childhood applications of positive behavior support embrace:

  • parent-professional partnerships;
  • multi-component, assessment-based, contextually-relevant interventions; and
  • data-based decision-making, and emphasis on quality of life. 

Within early childhood practice, there is a special emphasis on developmentally appropriate practice and fostering the social-emotional growth that needs to occur for children within their early years of life.

Preschool Settings:

A Demonstration of Individualized Positive Behavior Support Interventions by Head Start Staff to Address Children’s Challenging Behavior – Voorhees, Walker, Snell, & Smith (2013).  Article demonstrating the effectiveness of staff training, FBA and coaching within a Head Start classroom.

Program-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports in Rural PreschoolsSteed, Pomerleau, Muscott, & Rohde (2013).  Article describing evaluation data and successes and challenges of initial implementation of PBIS in three rural inclusive preschools.

Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support in Prescho0l: Lessons for Getting StartedCarter, Van Norman, & Tredwell (2011).  Article providing guidance on initiating implementation of program-wide PBS in preschool settings.

Class-Wide Positive Behavior Support in Preschool- Improving Teacher Implementation through Consultation. – Carter & Van Norman (2010).  Study demonstrating the impact of classroom consultation on teachers’ use of universal PBS practices.

Assessment and implementation of positive behavior support in preschools – Benedict, Horner, & Squires (2007).  Article describing an assessment of PBS implementation in 15 early childhood settings and the effects of PBS consultation on teachers’ practices and student behavior.

Positive Behavior Support Systems- Applying Key Features in Preschool Setting – Stormont, Lewis, & Beckner (2005).  Case study providing an in-depth description of the core features of PBS in a preschool setting in contrast to an elementary setting – lesson plan template and case scenario provided.

An Experimental Evaluation of PBS Support in a Community Preschool Program – Duda, Dunlap, Fox, Lentini, & Clarke (2004). Single case study examining the effects of PBS facilitated by a consultant on engagement and problem behavior of two preschool students.

Early Intervention, Positive Behavior Support, and Transition to School – Fox, Dunlap, & Cushing (2002).  Conceptual article on the use of PBS and importance of family in early intervention and subsequent transitions.

Home Settings:

Strategies for Helping Parents of Young Children Address Challenging Behaviors in the Home – Chai & Lieberman-Betz (2016).  In-depth case study describing the process and methods of building family-professional partnership to address challenging behavior.

An investigation of the effectiveness of family-centred positive behaviour support of young children with disabilities – Szu-Yin chu (2015).  Single subject study evaluating the effectiveness of family-centered PBS with 3 Taiwanese families with children with disabilities.

Parent Implementation of Function-Based Intervention to Reduce Children’s Challenging Behavior: A Literature Review – Fettig & Barton (2013).  Review of literature supporting the need to train parents to implement interventions based on FBAs of challenging behaviors.

Behavioral Control in At-Risk Toddlers- The Influence of the Family Check-Up – Shelleby, Shaw, & Cheong (2012).  Large-scale study investigating components of PBS within the Family Check-Up program and whether behavioral control mediates relationships.

Collaborating with Parents to Implement Behavioral Interventions for Children with Challenging Behaviors  – Park, Alber-Morgan, & Fleming (2011).  Conceptual paper providing advice for practitioners on how to work with families to address challenging behavior – case scenario provided.

The Effects of Positive Behavior Support Parent Training Programs on Parent-Child Relationships in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Families – Hall et al. (2010).  Paper outlining the impact of parent training workshops (Pyramid/Operation Change) on caregivers’ use of PBS strategies and parental stress.

Collateral Benefits of the Family Check-Up on Early Childhood School Readiness- Indirect Effects of Parents_ Positive Behavior Support – Lunkenheimer, Shaw, Gardner, Dishion, Connell, Wilson, & Skuban (2008).  Study evaluating longitudinal support and use of PBS for Family Check-Up intervention in a large sample of high-risk families.

The Family Check-Up With High-Risk Indigent Families: Preventing Problem Behavior by Increasing Parents’ Positive Behavior Support in Early Childhood – Dishion, Shaw, Weaver, Shaw, Gardner, & Wilson (2008).  Large-scale study evaluating PBS within Family Check-Up with regarding to prevention of problem behavior in your children from at-risk families.  

Implementation of Positive Behavior Support With a Sibling Set in a Home Environment – Duda, Clark, Fox, & Dunlap (2008).  Single case study describing home-based PBS program conducted with a sibling set with challenging behaviors.

Teaching Parents of Preschoolers at High Risk Strategies to Support Language and Positive Behavior – Hancock, Kaiser, & Delaney (2002).  Single case study of high-risk, low SES families evaluating an intervention aimed at improving caregivers’ teaching of communication skills and management of behavior.

Contextualized Behavioral Support in Early Intervention for Children with Autism and Their Families  – Moes & Frea (2002).  Paper describing the results of a functional communication training program contextualized within routines of a small sample of families with children with ASD.