Training and Systems

-Content Expert Dr. Denny Reed

In this section you will find literature related to establishing systems to support PBS and teaching people to implement it effectively universally or within or across groups, organizations, or communities in which people with behavioral support needs function. The type of materials include individual research studies, synopses, and discussion articles. 

Positive behavior support at a systems level retains the same features described in other sections of this website, with these features being implemented at multiple levels.  The features include:

    • An emphasis on quality of life and climate improvement
    • Employing proactive, educative, and functional strategies
    • Collaborative teaming
    • Assessing variables that may affect behavior
    • Data-based decision making

Effective training is tailored to the participants and circumstances in which practices will be used.  It involves clearly defining skills to be developed, effective instructional strategies (i.e., examples, prompting, modeling, practice activities, and positive and corrective feedback), and ongoing monitoring to ensure effective implementation. 

Click on each title below to access additional content.

Technology and PBS

Parent-Implemented Behavior Interventions via Telehealth for Older Children and Adolescents - Drew, C.M. (2019) Thesis paper (free).

Using Information Technology to Prepare Personnel to Implement Functional Behavioral Assessment and Positive Behavioral Support - Sailor, Freeman, Britten, McCart, Smith, Scott & Nelson (2000), Exceptionality, 8:3, 217-230 (for purchase)

Video Technology and Persons with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: An Emerging Technology for PBS - Sturmey (2003). In Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions (free).

PBS Training Models

Training Human Service Supervisors in Aspects of PBS: Evaluation of a State-wide, Performance Based Program - Reid, D., Rothloz, D., Parsons, M., Morris, L., Braswell, B., Green, C & Schell, R. (2003).  A curriculum and methodology for training human service supervisors in PBS is offered (for purchase).

Clinical and Cost Effectiveness in Staff Training in Positive Behaviour Support (PBS) for Treating Challenging Behaviour in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial - Hassiotis, Strydom, Crawford, et al. (2014).  Randomize control trial of a PBS staff training package compared to "as usual" training for staff supporting adults with developmental disabilities in a community setting (free).

Evaluation of Staff Training in PBS - MacDonald, McGill, & Murphy (2018). Study evaluating the impact of training managers in PBS on adults with developmental disabilities residing in a community setting (free).

Staff Training in Positive Behavior Support - MacDonald. (2016).  A chapter in Handbook of Evidence-Based Practices in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.  Four key features of PBS training are identified and supporting studies are presented (for purchase).

Training in Positive Behavioural Support: Increasing Staff Self-Efficacy and Positive Outcome Expectations - Stocks & Slater (2016).  A study on a 6 1/2 day staff training package in PBS, evaluating impact of staff self-efficacy and outcomes expectation for managing challenging behavior (for purchase).

A Survey of Staff Training and Performance Management Practices: the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly - Reed & Henly (2015).  Study examines the current process of onboarding Board Certified Behavior Analysts working in applied settings via a survey (free).

Outcomes for Staff Participating in Positive Behavioral Support Training - Wardale, Davis, Carroll, & Vassos (2014).  Article in IJPBS summarizing outcomes for 234 participants who received training in PBS (free)

Achieving Human Services Outcomes through Competency-Based Training - Ricciardi (2005).  Reviews several examples of competency-based training, providing guidelines for implementation of competency-based programs (free).

Outcomes of Staff Training in Positive Behaviour Support: A Systematic Review - MacDonald & McGill. (2013).  A systematic review of current research in PBS staff training and the outcomes examined by each study (for purchase).

A Model for Training Staff in Positive Behaviour Support - Dench (2005).  Examination of outcomes of a PBS staff training package for staff supporting adults with developmental disabilities in a community based setting (for purchase).

Best and Worst Ways to Motivate Staff in Community Agencies: A Brief Survey of Supervisors - Parsons, Reid, & Crow (2003).  Article recommending methods to motivate staff based on a survey of supervisors (for purchase).

Teaching Staff Members to Provide Choice Opportunities for Adults with Multiple Disabilities - Salmento & Bambara (2000).  Multiple-baseline across staff member/adult dyads study to evaluate the results of staff training on providing single-stimulus choice opportunities for adults with developmental disabilities (free).

Organizational and System Capacity Building

Performance management: changing behavior that drives organizational effectiveness -Daniels & Bailey (2014).  Book applying the principles of applied behavior analysis to improve performance and outcomes within organizations (for purchase).

Culturally responsive positive behavioral interventions and supports: A process-oriented framework for systematic transformation - Bal (2018).  A first look at Culturally Responsive Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (CRPBIS).  This article describes the considerations of culture within the context of applying positive behavior support strategies at a systems level (for purchase).

From Programs to Systems: Deploying Implementation Science and Practice for Sustained Real World Effectiveness in Services for Children and Families - Ghate (2015). Article in Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology describing approach to implementation that will enhance the quality of care, moving from an individual to systems level (free).

Implementation Drivers: Assessing Best Practices - Fixsen, Blase, Naoom, Metz, Louison, & Ward (2015).  A synthesis of best practices around implementing organizational change (for purchase).

Implementing Positive Behavioural Support: Changing Social and Organizational Contexts - Allen, McGill, Hastings, Toogood, Baker, Gore & Hughes (2013).  This article in International Journal of PBS provides a review of literature of factors that impact PBS in the community (free).

Positive behavioural support as a clinical model within acute assessment and treatment services - Gary, Smith, Nethell, Allen, & Lowe (2013).  Research on the organizational use of positive behavior support based assessment strategies to improve outcomes for adults with developmental disabilities residing in acute care facilities (available for purchase).

State Policies and Practices in Behavior Supports - Rotholz, Moseley, & Carlson (2013).  This study provides current status on the definition, provider qualifications, training, and oversight requirements for PBS in the US (free).

The impact of a whole-organisation approach to positive behavioural support on the use of physical interventions - Allen, Kaye, Horwood, Gray, & Mines (2012).  A comparison on the use of positive behavior support practices versus the use of restrictive practices with adults with developmental disabilities as a method to produce reductions in problem behavior (available for purchase).

Building Positive, Healthy, Inclusive Communities with Positive Behavior Support. Handbook of Positive Psychology and Developmental Disabilities, pp 81-95 - Enyart, Kurth, & Davidson (2017).  This chapter focuses on the use of positive behavior support to align outcomes across organizations, schools, home, and community settings to improve the quality of life of individuals with developmental disabilities (for purchase).

Statewide Implementation of Evidenced-Based Programs - Fixsen, Blasé, Metz, & Van Dyke (2013).  Describes a framework for developing statewide infrastructure in supporting families and children that is a shift away from program development (for purchase).

Positive Behavior Support Across the Lifespan: Expanding the concept of statewide planning for large scale organizational systems change - Freeman et al. (2010).  In this monograph the critical features of statewide planning for expanding the implementation of positive behavior support across a state (within human service organizations, schools, community settings, and others) is described (free).

Delivering support in the foster care system. Handbook of Positive Behavior Support, pp 279-304 - Crossland, Dunlap, Hewitt, & Neff (2009).  A paper on the use of systems level PBS application specific to the foster care system (for purchase).

Behavior Intervention Planning and Implementation of Positive Behavioral Support Plans: An examination of states' adherence to standards for practice - Killu, Weber, Derby & Barretto (2006).  This study complied information from all 50 states on the resources developed by the states educational institutions and compared these to the current standards of practice for PBIS (free).

Building a Statewide Plan for Embedding Positive Behavior Support in Human Service Organizations - Freeman, Smith, Zarcone, Kimbrough, Tieghi-Benet, Wickham, Reese, & Hine (2005).  This article outlines a 3 pronged process used to implement systems wide change with the intention to increase the use of positive behavior support across state agencies and across different service areas (free).

Operation Positive Change: PBS in an Urban Context - Markey, Markey, Quant, Santelli, & Turnbull (2002).  Article discussing training curriculum in positive behavior support for culturally and linguistically diverse families living in underserved urban communities (free).

Effective Support Teams

Effects of Behavior Support Team Composition on the Technical Adequacy and Contextual Fit of Behavior Support Plans - Benazzi, Leah, Horner, R.H. & Good, R.H. (2006).  This study examined how the composition of a behavior support team affected use of assessment information
in the design of behavior support plans.

Outcomes from a Community-based Positive Behavioural Support Team for Children and Adults with Developmental Disabilities. - Bowring, D.L., Totsika, V., Hastings, R.P & Toogood, S (2020).  This study examined how PBS team approaches resulted in statistically reliable and clinically significant behavior change. Few previous studies have reported quality of life (QoL) and social validity outcomes.  This study demonstrates successful PBS outcomes in QoL, HRQoL, challenging behaviour and social validity in a community setting (for purchase).

Ten principles of good interdisciplinary team
work. Nancarrow, S.A., Booth, A., Ariss, S., Smith, T., Enderby, P., & Roots, A. (2013).  This study examines existing research on what makes a "good" team.  In addition, research was done on other characteristics of an effective team (free).

Designing specialist community-based behavioural support teams. Bowring, D.L., Totsika, V., Hastings, R.P. (2019).  The authors discuss the approaches, priorities and outcomes specialist community-based behavioural support teams should be focused on (for purchase).

Providing positive behavioural support services: specialist  challenging behaviour support teams.  Toogood, S., Saville, M.H., McLennan, K., McWade, P., Morgan, G., Welch., C.,  & Nicholson, M. (2015).  The article reviews the rise and fall of specialist challenging behaviour support teams and describes an up-to-date replication and innovation of the service model (for purchase).

A Collaborative Approach to Implement Positive Behavior Support Plans for Children with Problem Behaviors: A Comparison of Consultation versus Consultation and Feedback Approach.  Erbas, Dilek (2010). The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of consultation alone and consultation plus feedback on the proper use of positive behavior support strategies (PBS) on behaviors of three mothers with children with developmental disabilities.

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