This Training section includes literature related to teaching people to implement positive behavior support.  The information is directed at both professionals (e.g., direct support staff, administrators, other practitioners) and parents or other family members.  This section includes individual research studies, synopses, and discussion articles. 

Effective training is tailored to the participants and circumstances in which practices will be used.  It involves:

  • clearly defining skills to be developed,
  • effective instructional strategies (i.e.., examples, prompting, modeling, practice activities, and positive and corrective feedback) and
  • ongoing monitoring to ensure effective implementation. 

Training in positive behavior support emphasizes values as well as procedures.  Click on the citations below to be redirected to either the publication itself (if available) or the publisher’s website where the item can be purchased.

Behavioral Parent Training

Effect of Parent Training vs. Parent Education on Behavioral Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder – Bearss, Johnson, Smith et al. (2015).  Large-scale randomized trial comparing parent training approaches focused on disruptive and noncompliant behavior (free).

Functional Assessment Based Parent Training Intervention in Reducing Children’s Challenging Behaviors: Exploratory Study of Group Training – Fettig & Ostrosky (2014).  Evaluation of a group PBS training program using an interrupted time series design.

Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support (MBPBS) for Mothers of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Effects on Adolescents’ Behavior and Parental Stress –  Singh, Lancioni, Winton, et al. (2014).  This study evaluated a MBPBS program, training mothers of adolescents with autism in an 8 week program (free).

Positive Family Intervention for Severe Challenging Behavior I: A Multisite Randomized Clinical TrialDurand, Hieneman, Clarke et al. (2012).  Evaluation of parent training program that combines PBS and optimism training through a randomized control trial (for purchase).

The Application of a Three-Tier Model of Intervention to Parent Training – Phaneuf & McIntyre (2011).  Study that examined the effects of a three-tiered model of support based on the Incredible Years program for parents of preschool aged children with disabilities (free).

Triple-P Parenting Program as a Public Health Approach to Strengthening Parenting – Sanders (2008).  Evaluation of a three-tiered model with an emphasis on self-regulation applied to parent training for high risk children (for purchase).

Predictors of Parent Training Efficacy for Child Externalizing Behavior Problems – Reyno & McGrath (2005).  Meta-analysis of parent training literature examining child, parent, and family-level variables that predict the responsiveness of parents (for purchase).

Treating Children with Early Onset Conduct Problems: Intervention Outcomes for Parent, Child, and Teacher Training – Webster-Stratton, Reid, & Hammond (2004).  Study examines effects of teaching training either combined with parent training, child social skills training or both (free).

The Past, Present, and Future of Behavioral Parent Training: Interventions for Child and Adolescent Behavior Problems – Shaffer, Kotchick, Dorsey, & Forehand (2001).  A review, summary, and suggestions for best practices for parent training to support children with problem behavior (free).

Parent Management Training: Evidence, Outcomes, and Issues – Kazdin (1997).  Presents overview and outcomes of PMT program (for purchase).

Collateral effects of parent training on family interactions – Koegel, Bimbela, & Schreibman (1996).  Student examining results of two parent training approaches during unstructured family dinnertime interactions.

The Effectiveness of Behavioral Parent Training to Modify Antisocial Behavior in Children: A Meta-Analysis – Serketich & Dumas (1996).  Examination of literature on outcomes of behavioral parent training.

Training  & Coaching PBS Practitioners

Evaluation of Staff Training in PBS – MacDonald, McGill, & Murphy (2018). Study evaluating the impact of training managers in PBS on adults with developmental disabilities residing in a community setting (free).

Staff Training in Positive Behavior SupportMacDonald. (2016).  A chapter in Handbook of Evidence-Based Practices in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.  Four key features of PBS training are identified and supporting studies are presented (for purchase).

Training in Positive Behavioural Support: Increasing Staff Self-Efficacy and Positive Outcome Expectations – Stocks & Slater (2016).  A study on a 6 1/2 day staff training package in PBS, evaluating impact of staff self-efficacy and outcomes expectation for managing challenging behavior (for purchase).

A Survey of Staff Training and Performance Management Practices: the Good, the Bad, and the UglyReed & Henly (2015).  Study examines the current process of onboarding Board Certified Behavior Analysts working in applied settings via a survey (free).

Outcomes for Staff Participating in Positive Behavioral Support Training – Wardale, Davis, Carroll, & Vassos (2014).  Article in IJPBS summarizing outcomes for 234 participants who received training in PBS (free)

Clinical and Cost Effectiveness in Staff Training in Positive Behaviour Support (PBS) for Treating Challenging Behaviour in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial – Hassiotis, Strydom, Crawford, et al. (2014).  Randomize control trial of a PBS staff training package compared to “as usual” training for staff supporting adults with developmental disabilities in a community setting (free).

Performance management: changing behavior that drives organizational effectivenessDaniels & Bailey (2014).  Book applying the principles of applied behavior analysis to improve performance and outcomes within organizations (for purchase).

Outcomes of Staff Training in Positive Behaviour Support: A Systematic ReviewMacDonald & McGill. (2013).  A systematic review of current research in PBS staff training and the outcomes examined by each study (for purchase).

A Model for Training Staff in Positive Behaviour SupportDench (2005).  Examination of outcomes of a PBS staff training package for staff supporting adults with developmental disabilities in a community based setting (for purchase).

Achieving Human Services Outcomes through Competency-Based Training – Ricciardi (2005).  Reviews several examples of competency-based training, providing guidelines for implementation of competency-based programs (free).

Best and Worst Ways to Motivate Staff in Community Agencies: A Brief Survey of Supervisors – Parsons, Reid, & Crow (2003).  Article recommending methods to motivate staff based on a survey of supervisors (for purchase).

Essential Elements of Inservice Training in Positive Behavior Support – Dunlap, Hieneman, Knoster, et al. (2000).  Article describing core curriculum features of PBS training for educators and professionals supporting people with problem behavior (for purchase).

Teaching Staff Members to Provide Choice Opportunities for Adults with Multiple Disabilities Salmento & Bambara (2000).  Multiple-baseline across staff member/adult dyads study to evaluate the results of staff training on providing single-stimulus choice opportunities for adults with developmental disabilities (free).